Publication year: 2021
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Hepatitis is a liver infection characterized by inflammation of the liver tissue. Infectious causes of hepatitis include viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as non-infectious causes, such as radiation, drugs, chemicals, autoimmune diseases, and toxins. Viral infection accounts for most hepatitis cases observed in the clinical setting. The main subtypes of hepatitis include HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, and HEV. Infections with these viruses can lead to the onset of acute disease with symptoms, including jaundice, dark urine, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Some subtypes, such as HBV and HCV, can lead to the prolonged elevation of serum transaminase level (longer than 6 months), a condition termed chronic hepatitis.