Publication year: 2002
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In the second half of the twentieth century, increasing efforts were made towards containing and cleaning contaminated groundwater. A number of techniques can be used to achieve such goals, traditionally either by treating or isolating the soil in situ, or by removing it for washing or disposal. However, such technologies tend to be accompanied by high energy consumption, and can lead to new environmental problems. Therefore, more efficient and economical techniques are needed to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater.