Publication year: 2005
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To access global oil and gas deposits, major pipelines must traverse remote regions with extreme terrains. There are a significant number of pipeline projects, active or planned, in tropical jungles, mountains and deserts, in permafrost and in areas of wetland. Each of these natural environments is associated with a range of geohazards, which may include landslides, soil erosion, karst, river migration, and seismic or volcanic activity. At the same time, society demands increasing availability and reliability of supply, together with improved environmental standards, all making for substantial challenges.