Publication year: 2017
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On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them).
Subject: History, Fritz Haber, Military-Industrial Complex, 1925 Geneva Protocol, Ethics of Chemical Warfare, Dual-use Problem, Chemical Weapons in the Middle East, Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions, History of Military, Military and Defence Studies, History of Chemistry Research Ethics, International Humanitarian Law, Law of Armed Conflict, Security Science and Technology