Willingness for Vaccination in: A Cross-Sectional Study among University Students and Staff in Syrian Universities

  • 24 Sep 2022
  • Ongoing Research - Pharmacy

Mouhidien Jouma, Claus Jacob and Afraa Razzouk


Post Graduate Studies & Research Council Meeting No. 8, 1/8/2022

Date of Acceptance


The emergence of infectious diseases throughout history have posed a hard challenge to health institutions and organisations all over the world, this challenge changed by time by invent of vaccines against various infectious diseases such as smallpox vaccine, rubella and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), polio and mumps [1]. Which significantly decreased the mortality rates and hospitalisation, this reflects clearly with the appearance of new corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in 2019 and availability of vaccines by WHO the death numbers are completely less with availability of vaccines after short period compared to the 1918 Spanish influenza which caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus. At that time, the Spanish flu lasted from 1918 to 1920 and consisted of four waves. It infected about 500 million people, roughly one-third of the world’s population at that time and resulted in the deaths of 50 million[2].

In the modern era, during the pandemics the WHO started to face more complicated problems such as refusal of vaccines despite the availability. In 2019 the WHO it declared the vaccine hesitancy as one of the top ten threats to global health. Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways of avoiding disease Measles, for example, has seen a 30% increase in cases globally [3]. The reasons for this rise are complex due to vaccine hesitancy some countries that were close to eliminating the disease have seen a resurgence for example, new cases of polio eradicated in Syria 2017 and diphtheria in 2022 [4]–[6].

The reasons why people choose not to vaccinate are complex; a vaccines advisory group to WHO identified complacency, inconvenience in accessing vaccines, and lack of confidence are key reasons underlying hesitancy. Health workers, especially those in communities, remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions, and they must be supported to provide trusted, credible information on vaccines [3].  

Several factors influence the vaccine hesitancy started to be studied by researchers 3C’s, 4C’s, and finally 5C’s [7] [8]. The 5C’s model includes complacency, confidence, convenience and constraints, collective, and calculation.

The factors influencing of willingness to be vaccinated remains major issue in Syria, which requires urgent attention as low vaccine acceptance rates pose a serious obstacle to the control of the epidemics and pandemics. In this study, we are planning to characterize the situation on the ground and understand the reasons behind the refusing of vaccines individuals, despite having a high level of knowledge about epidemics / pandemic may still be hesitant / unwilling to be vaccinated, thereby, improving the designing of informed and effective vaccine policies.