Health Financing and Spending in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

  • 20 Jan 2022
  • Published Resarch - Business


Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Zafer Çalışkan, Paula Odete Fernandes, Sulaiman Mouselli and Michael Ekubu Otim

Published in

Frontiers in Public Health, Health Economics, Volume 9, article no. 800333, December 2021.


The contribution of low- and middle-income countries' shares in total health expenditure almost doubled in 2013 (40%) compared to 1995 (20%) on a purchasing power parity basis. Despite this development, there are still several challenges: access to health care, socioeconomic inequalities, the size of out-of-pocket spending, and catastrophic spending. With the acceleration of preventive health care interventions, the availability of medicines and cost-effective basic medical technologies have contributed to early childhood survival and increased life expectancy.

Keywords: health financing, health spending, health insurance, LMICs, health care, health policy.

Link to Read Full Paper